The extensive postharvest use of chemical fungicides on citrus has caused the development of resistant fungi strains. Sánchez-Torres and Tuset (2011) evaluated the sensitivity of 75 Penicillium digitatum strains to seven different fungicides and found a significant number of strains resistant to fungicides commonly used in citrus. The microorganism was isolated from fruit surfaces and screened in vitro for antagonism to green mold. With P. digitatum, rotten fruit later had a wrinkled appearance that became apparent when it was overlaid with the lime green spores. Some members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria.Other species are used in cheesemaking. This acid is involved in the active transport of iron in various microorganisms and reduces the iron level around the spores on the surface of the banana (Harper and Swinburne, 1979; Harper et al., 1980). The currently accepted scientific name is P. digitatum (Pers. It is classified in subgenus Penicillium, but is not typical of species in that subgenus. Fungal rots are one of the main causes of large economic losses and deterioration in the quality and nutrient composition of fruits during the postharvest stage. Application of SOPP (2%) is effective in controlling the disease postharvest. It is used in the creation of latex agglutination kits. That is why intensive research is being done in order to come up with a lasting food security solution. The addition of high CO2 to this atmosphere further enhanced fungal growth inhibition, because of the additive effects of CO and CO2 (El Goorani and Sommer, 1979,1981). Still, another interesting approach to decay control calls for the use of exogenous hormones to induce endogenous defense mechanisms. [1… However, that does not rule out the fact that penicillium species can cause some dangerous diseases. Smilanicka,∗, M.F. This means that plants are crucial sources of food. Aqueous salt solutions (2% w/v) were applied as preharvest sprays, postharvest dips, or both. Penicillium digitatum is the first phytopathogenic Penicillium species whose complete genome has been entirely sequenced (Marcet-Houben et al., 2012). Incidence of sour rot increases in fruit harvested early in the morning or following irrigation or rainfall. Penicillium, genus of blue or green mold fungi (kingdom Fungi) that exists as asexual forms (anamorphs, or deuteromycetes). Penicillium. Penicillium spore germination is also stimulated by the addition of oil derived from the rind of orange, lemon, grapefruit or other citrus fruits (French et al., 1978). Jincheng) and the possible modes of action were evaluated. One of the common threats is Penicillium digitatum. Effect of concentration of the synthetic mixture of volatile compounds on the germination of Penicillium digitatum spores. The employment of fungicides can effectively control the citrus green mold, significantly reducing agricultural economic loss. With over 300 accepted species, the Penicillium genus includes some of the most common fungi in the world. Testing the effect of the juice components on spore germination revealed that of the sugars within the juice (glucose, sucrose and fructose), glucose is the best stimulant. Penicillium, a genus of ascomycetous fungi, has a long history of interaction with mankind; sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful, the genus Penicillium contains over 300 species and remains poorly understood by the general public despite its widespread medical use. Although P. digitatum was slow to produce mycelia in comparison to the large lesions, sporula-tion followed quickly thereafter. Postharvest heat treatments to inhibit Penicillium digitatum growth and maintain quality of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata blanco). The combination of glucose and ascorbic acid results in a germination rate quite close to that stimulated by the whole juice. Whether in vitro or in vivo , treatments with cell-free autoclaved cultures or culture filtrate had limited capacity to suppress P. Ascorbic acid and a number of terpene compounds in citrus fruits, much like their stimulating effect on the germination of P. digitatum spores, can also stimulate mycelial growth of this fungus, which is specific to citrus fruits (Pelser and Eckert, 1977; French et al., 1978). It is associated with Citrus decay. Identification to species is difficult. Postharvest treatment of H. uvarum Y3 combined with 1.5% phosphatidylcholine significantly reduced weight loss in comparison with the control treatment. It is interesting to note that volatile compounds evolved from diced peels of various Citrus spp. 2. Fortunately, It is efficient when it comes to detecting some food contaminants. It belongs to the mesophilic fungus which are popular in citrus producing soil. 9. However, P. ulaiense is a weaker pathogen than P. italicum (Holmes et al., 1994). Accepted 24 August, 2011 The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hot water treatments on some of … Initial control involves reducing spore build up in the orchard by removing fallen fruit, and in the factory by removing culled fruit (Snowdon, 1990). Citrus fruits have to be handled properly once they have been harvested. Orchard and packinghouse sanitation is required to restrict sporulation of Penicillium on fruits in orchards and packinghouses to minimize decay losses. M. El-Otmani, ... L. Zacarías, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Açai to Citrus, 2011. The colony obverse is oliv green and the reverse colorless to cream yellow or pale dull brown. Fig. They will contaminate packingline equipment and storage rooms, and may accumulate in water, drencher and soap tanks. This species is closely related genetically to P. italicum, recognizably different by much slower growth on CYA and MEA. The fungal cell wall (CW) and its specific component chitin are potential targets for the development of new antifungal molecules. The most common one is its significant role in the production of modern antibiotic. A correlation was also found between the sugar contents of nectarine and plum fruits and their susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection (Fourie and Holz, 1998); this finding will be discussed below in regard to enhanced susceptibility to decay during the ripening stage. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. (oranges, lemons, grapefruits, tangerines, kumquats) have also induced stimulation of germination of P. digitatum spores. Sacc. The effectiveness of this fungistatic gas is pathogen dependent and is greatly enhanced in combination with a low-O2 atmosphere (2.3%). With respect to water activity, P. digitatum has a relatively low tolerance for osmotic stress. Penicillium crustosum was the fastest to sporulate, and P. solitum the slowest. A similar effect occurred on Penicillium italicum conidia also. At temperatures below 15 °C Aspergillus growth is severely affected while Rhizopus grows well at these temperatures. Zeki Berk, in Citrus Fruit Processing, 2016. 9). These species grow rapidly at 20–25 °C but very slowly below 5 °C or above 30 °C. Conidia are distinctive, ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, olive in colour, and 6–8(− 15) μm long, larger than those of other Penicillium species. 3. The fungus is able to germinate in artificial media at 5°C and, in some cases, can produce colonies of up to 3 mm in diameter. On the other hand, a synthetic mixture of limonene, the major terpene in the wounded fruit atmosphere, with acetaldehyde, ethanol and CO2, at concentrations similar to those measured in the atmosphere around wounded oranges, stimulated spore germination on water agar to the same degree as the natural mixture of volatiles. Limonene peak shown was attenuated 16 times. 2.1B left), but poorly on Czapek agar and similar synthetic media. TBZ and Imazalil at concentrations of 1000 ppm are applied as water solution in the drencher. The fact that the average quantity of volatile compounds emanating from wounded fruits was 75 times greater than that from non-injured fruit may explain the lower germination of P. digitatum spores on water agar exposed to sound citrus fruits. The stem end is the most common entry site for the Penicillium species (Kaul and Lall, 1975). Briefly, colonies are plane and grow rapidly on malt extract agar (MEA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA; see Fig. The known nomenclatural synonyms (obligate or homotypic synonyms) are Aspergillus digitatus Pers.:Fr. Application of fungicides is the main method carried out to control postharvest diseases of oranges (Li et al., 2016a). Fig. They observed that disruption of this gene in mutants resulted in impaired conidiation and caused malformation of the conidiophore structures. Volatile compounds that stimulate spore germination or fungal development were suggested by French (1985) to act by altering membrane permeability or regulating metabolism. P. digitatum happens to be the main contributor to the loss of citrus to infections. (2015) recently reported that exogenous application of a plant hormone belonging to the group of brassinosteroids reduces significantly the incidence of disease in Satsuma mandarins. Penicilli are terverticillate, borne on smooth stipes. Applying mixtures of O2 and CO to B. cinerea-inoculated apples inhibited lesion development, and the inhibition was closely related to the decrease in the O2 level from 8% to 2% (Sommer et al., 1981). Figure 6.2. Penicillium digitatum are typically elliptical under the microscope. californicum Thom (1930), P. digitatum var. In response to the health and environmental concerns of the public, attempts have been made to develop methods for controlling pathogen decay without the use of chemical fungicides. Previously known as Penicillium notatum, Penicillium Chrysogenum is a widely studied species of Penicillium that is most famous for being a source of penicillin and several other antibiotics.P. The species is classified in the class Fungi, division Ascomycota, subdivision Pezizomycotina, class Eurotiomycetes, subclass Eurotiomycetidae, order Eurotiales, family Trichocomaceae, and genus Penicillium. The discovery of penicillin from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (then known as Penicillium notatum) by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928, perfected the treatment of bacterial infections.The name Penicillium comes from the resemblance of the spore p… Affected areas appear as watery spots with white mycelium produced at the centre. The whole fruit tolerance to SOPP in the United States is 10 ppm. Work by Wang and Li (2008) showed that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation could be used as a genetic tool for conducting insertional mutagenesis in P. digitatum to study functional genomics. their compositions, hence the relative differences among the stimulating or suppressing activities of oils produced from different sources. Penicillium (/ ˌ p ɛ n ɪ ˈ s ɪ l i ə m /) is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that is of major importance in the natural environment, in food spoilage, and in food and drug production.. The yeast Clavispora lusitaniae 146 has previously been shown to efficiently protect lemons from green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum. (2013) reported successful control of green mold by a combination of Candida yeast and medicinal plants. Storage at low temperature reduces the development of green and blue molds. Certain compounds in the host tissues might, on certain occasions, affect the host susceptibility to infection by stimulating pathogen growth. However, when a comparable amount of isolated lemon peel oil was topically applied to the washed wounds, 92% of the inoculated wound sites did develop complete green mold symptoms (Arimoto et al., 1995). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Application of H. uvarum Y3 alone or combined with phosphatidylcholine significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial development in orange wounds and had no influence on storage quality parameters. Growth parameters, so far as they are known, are similar to those of P. italicum. P. digitatum develops olive-colored spores while those of P. italicum are of blue color. In the presence of 250 ppm oil, 15% of the spore population had germinated after 24 hours at 19°C, while no germination occurred in the control spores (water only). Some are the reason why there are food security and human diseases such as allergies and pneumonia. The major menace of these pathogens is due to their spores, which appear as fine powder and are airborne. It appeared that oils produced from different citrus fruits might differ in. Sacc in ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit. The possibility of using CO atmosphere for decay suppression during storage has been studied for various commodities. These formulations can confirm that P. digitatum has the ability to cause allergies in human beings. Sacc. The employment of fungicides can effectively control the citrus green mold, significantly reducing agricultural economic loss. Commonly found in soil, food, cellulose and grains (17, 5). Another common postharvest problem of citrus is sour rot, caused by the yeastlike fungus, Geotrichum candidum. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Temperatures below 10 °C suppress decay development, but growth of the fungus is restored when fruit is transferred to higher temperatures. 3). Fungal resistance to these chemicals, along with consumer pressure for safer control methods is providing the impetus for alternative treatments based on generally regarded as safe compounds in combination with heat treatments and biological control agents, such as naturally occurring bacteria and yeasts. It reproduces asexually via conidiophores. The residual amount of SOPP, after foam wash and waxing applications at maximum commercial rates, remained below the tolerance threshold (Johnson et al., 2001). Growth occurs down to 0 °C or slightly below, and up to 32–34 °C, with an optimum near 24 °C. Consuming such food brings about some dire consequences. Penicillium italicum also causes rots in citrus, principally in lemons. Furthermore, it is one of the serious causes of Pneumonia. Furthermore, once established in one fruit, the mold emanates gases rich in ethylene that affect all the fruit in the vicinity. That is why intensive research is being done in order to come up with a lasting food security solution. The genus penicillin molecule is a well-known antibiotics drug used in medicine to fight infection from certain kinds of bacteria. The new fungal phylomes P. digitatum and P. chrysogenum were uploaded to the public database PhylomeDB (www.phylomedb.org). This antibiotic has been able to treat various bacterial infections. SEM examination revealed that hot water brushing had smoothed epicuticular waxes and thus covered stomata end cracks, which could have an effect on the rate of decay. Blue mold is more harmful because it spreads in the box and healthy fruits are directly attacked, regardless of injury (Fig 16.3, see also Plate 16.3). Green mold does not spread by nesting; thus, if a single fruit is affected it remains as such without contaminating adjacent fruit. Growth of P. digitatum lies between 6 and 37 °C, with a minimum aw for growth near 0.9. 1x is the concentration typical of the natural mixture measured surrounding wounded oranges. The addition of CO to the atmosphere results in the suppression of various fungi sensitive to the gas, such as Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum and Monilinia fructicola. Incidence of sour rot can be reduced by harvesting fruit carefully and under conditions of low moisture to minimize injuries, and by preventing fruit coming into contact with the soil. Pollen exudates from weeds commonly found in stone fruit orchards have also been found to be stimulators of B. cinerea growth (Fourie and Holz, 1998). (1794), which is the basionym or original name, Monilia digitata (Pers. This pathogen is of main concern, as it is responsible for 90% of oranges deterioration during the storage period, resulting in serious economic losses. Penicilli are very large, biverticillate to terverticillate, and produced on smooth stipes. Conidia germination and germ tube growth of Penicillium digitatim in 1% (v/v) orange juice dialysate at several pH values. Pers. digitatum, while P. Recently, chitin synthase genes of P. digitatum were isolated and characterized by Gandía et al. The drug of choice for treatment of P marneffei infection is amphotericin B, although in vitro resistance has been described (Box 5). In spite of the efficiency of CO combined with Iow-O2 atmospheres in decay suppression, the use of this gas is limited, mainly because of its high toxicity to humans and the fear of inhalation of the poisonous gas by workers. Penicillium is a group (Genus) of moulds found everywhere world-wide. Accurate descriptions of P. digitatum have been provided by Raper and Thom (1949), Onions (1966a), Frisvad and Samson (2004) and Pitt and Hocking (2009) among others. Since little or no germination of P. digitatum occurred on water agar alone, it was assumed that substrate nutrition was the determinant of spore germination and an important factor in host specificity of the pathogen to citrus fruits. However, when the peel is wounded, during harvesting or subsequent handling and processing, P. digitatum spores germinate and their germ tubes may penetrate the fruit, to initiate infection and, eventually, to develop the typical green mold symptoms. Further, a comparison with the closely related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum revealed a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. Aw 0.78 - 0.88 (5) A wide number of organisms have placed in this genera. Indoors, it usually grows on wallpaper, wallpaper glue, carpet, paint, fabrics, house dust and water-damaged buildings in general. There are a number of practices that one should undertake to curb the green rot in Citrus fruits. Fungal spores can rapidly degrade this acid to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, which is responsible for the accelerated germination. Pitt, in Food Spoilage Microorganisms, 2006. Ripening apricots also release ethanol and acetaldehyde which, at low concentrations, stimulate germ tube growth of Monilinia fructicola, in vitro (Cruickshank and Wade, 1992). First, it causes decay in citrus immediately after the fruits have been harvested. Oranges showing nonchilling peel pitting (A), chilling injury (CI) (B), and stem end chilling injury (SECI), when the disorder begins (C), and after it extends through the fruit surface (D). We confirmed the presence of antigen-specific This recent and important result was achieved through the collaboration effort of research teams in Catalonia and Valencia. In the light of the finding that peel oil extracts applied to wounded epicarps can restore disease development potential to the pathogen, Arimoto et al. The fractured cells in the injured area also supply the nutrients required for the germination and infection phases. Author information: (1)Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Alimentos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. When added to air, CO increased the CO2 and ethylene production rates and, in parallel, hastened the ripening of mature-green tomatoes, while the addition of CO to a low – O2 atmosphere had no or very little effect on these physiological responses. Green mold (P. digitatum) is quite common in India and grows rather slowly at lower temperatures. Most isolates are resistant to imazalil, the chemical of choice for control of P. italicum. 2). Germination of various fungal spores may be stimulated by solutes that diffuse from within the fruit or other plant organs into the water film over the infection site. The taxonomic synonyms (facultative or heterotypic synonyms) are P. olivaceum Wehmer (1895), P. olivaceum Sopp (1912), P. olivaceum var. These three species of citrus rotting Penicillium species are found only rarely from other food sources. Control on harvested fruit relies on fungicidal sprays or dips, but resistance to thiabendazole, benomyl and imazalil has developed in most countries to a greater or lesser degree (Eckert et al., 1994). Penicillium Chrysogenum. (1995) investigated the possibility that some components of the lemon peel oil might be essential for fungal development in the peel tissues. The minimum water activity required for growth at 25 °C (77 °F) is 0.90, at 37 °C (99 °F) is 0.95 and at 5 °C (41 °F) is 0.99. These studies indicated that lemon epicarp oil, with the limonene removed, promoted the production of green mold symptoms on only 28% of the wounds, suggesting that limonene was one facilitator of green mold formation on wounded fruits. Those species for which the sexual phase is known are placed in the Eurotiales. Penicillium digitatum Sacc. At higher concentrations, however, some volatiles, such as acetaldehyde, were found to be fungitoxic (Prasad, 1975) and have been evaluated as fumigants to control postharvest diseases of various crops (see the chapter on Chemical Control- Natural Chemical Compounds). A greatly enhanced germination is stimulated by the ascorbic acid, whereas the citric acid has no stimulating effect. Fungal conidia that accumulate in water condensate on citrus fruits can also be induced to germinate by volatile compounds emanating from adjacent wounds. However, another promoting factor was isolated from the oil and was identified as prangolarin by spectrometric analysis. Spores of both fungi are airborne and large amounts are produced on the surface of infected fruit. (2012) investigated the effectiveness of some salts against decay in clementines and Valencia late oranges. Normally it infects citrus fruits with mold or green rot hence consuming the entire fruit. Indeed, storage fungi are capable of acquiring resistance to fungicides (Ben-Yehoshua et al., 1996; Kellerman et al., 2014). (2013) identified and cloned the gene that regulates the sucrose non-fermenting protein kinase in P. digitatum. Later, wrapping has been replaced by direct application of sodium orthophenyl-phenate (SOPP) and/or thiabendazole during washing or waxing. Mérat (1821). Ten days later, the germination rate amounted to 70% with the oil, in comparison with approximately 10% in the control. (MycoBank #169502). Preliminary observations indicated that a minimum exposure period of 20 s at 56°C was needed to inhibit Penicillium digitatum spore germination in vitro. Searching for the reason for this phenomenon, Eckert and Ratnayake (1994) found that a mixture of volatiles evaporating from the abrasions of wounded oranges were capable of accelerating or inducing germination of P. digitatum spores on water agar as well as within an injury of the rind. Prangolarin by itself enhanced P. digitatum development on wounded epicarps of lemons, resulting in the development of green mold symptoms because of the production of masses of conidiophores and conidia (Arimoto et al., 1995). Fungal growth in the rots is blue or blue green. Under conditions where P. italicum has been controlled, the much less common and relatively newly described species P. ulaiense can be a problem. The principal shortcoming of fungicide application is the increasing resistance of the consumers to the presence of chemical residues on the product. Penicillium spore germination is also stimulated by the addition of oil derived from the rind of orange, lemon, grapefruit or other citrus fruits (French et al., 1978). Strict hygienic conditions should also prevail in the whole packinghouse, storage rooms and the circulating air. Potassium sorbate, a widely used food preservative, having the status of a generally recognized as safe additive and being particularly effective against fungi, cannot be used as a postharvest fungistat in citrus, because it enhances weight loss (Parra et al., 2014). To investigate the cellular damage on Penicillium digitatum produced by a sequential oxidative treatment (SOT), previously standardized in our laboratory, to prevent the conidia growth. Good sanitary conditions and cleaning practices should be observed to reduce risks of contamination and ensure hygienic fruit retail sales. Aloui et al. Conidia are characteristically produced as short cylinders from the phialides, rounding up somewhat with maturity, and measuring 3.0–5.0 μm in length. Spores of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold, though capable of germination in pure water to some degree, cannot infect strawberries or cabbage leaves without external nutrients (Jarvis, 1962; Yoder and Whalen, 1975). Penicillium digitatum produces destructive brown rots on oranges and less frequently other types of citrus. Over 90% inhibition of green and blue mold and sour rot was achieved. Alternaria species can cause black center rot of oranges and mandarins. Not all species of Penicillium are that useful. The analysis was also indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and revealed the molecular basis for the inability of P. digitatum to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. It is evident in various clinical allergy testing formulations. At 25–30 °C, fruit will rot completely in 4 or 5 days, and the disease can spread by contact. The odor can be strong, as volatile metabolites such as limonene, valencene, ethylene, ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, or methyl acetate have been detected. (2000) examined the use of a hot water brushing treatment as a postharvest method of fruit disinfection. In that connection, a lot of components are used to create new food supplements, genetically engineered foods, and great food alternatives. It is also found in paint and compost piles. Generally, spores of Penicillium digitatum do not germinate in water on the surface of citrus fruit until the peel is injured (Smoot and Melvin, 1961). : Fr.) SC treatment almost completely inhibited green mold (Penicillium digitatum) development in wound-artificially inoculated l ... DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106878 Mature fruits are more prone to this decay than immature fruits. Initial symptoms of infection are similar for both molds. In infected fruit, very profuse sporulation can be seen – fruit is completely covered by white mycelium followed by green and bluish spores of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum respectively. Penicillium digitatum is a mesophilic fungus, growing from 6–7 °C (43–45 °F) to a maximum of 37 °C (99 °F), with an optimal growth temperature at 24 °C (75 °F). For instance, Penicillium digitatum causes mycosis in human beings. 2.1C left). For successful postharvest control, careful fruit harvest and handling procedures should be undertaken that will also reduce the risk of contamination of healthy fruit. In consequence it is classified in subgenus Penicillium, section Cylindrospora. The major components of this mixture were the terpenes, limonene, ∝-pinene, β-myrcene, and sabinene, accompanied by acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene and CO2, as identified by gas chromatography (Fig. The genus was first identified in scientific literature by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in his 1809 work Observationes in ordines plantarum naturale. Tea saponin was found to enhance fungus inhibition by the bacillus. Often found in aerosol samples (17). In culture, P. italicum produces rapidly growing green colonies, 30–40 and 35–55 mm diameter on CYA and MEA, respectively. Such occurrences can cause extracellular polysaccharide in human beings. Lafuente et al. Project description:Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively.The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Biological control of Penicillium digitatum on citrus with antagonistic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. 6.2) and Penicillium italicum, known as the green and blue molds, respectively (Nunes et al., 2010). Milind S. Ladaniya, in Citrus Fruit, 2008. Conidia are smooth-walled, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, variable in size, but mostly 3.5–8.0 × 3.0–4.0 μm (see Fig. Pathogens which penetrate through the host lenticels can feed on the nutrients secreted from the cells adjoining the lenticels, especially after injury following tissue senescence (Eckert, 1978). The fungus finally degrades the fruit into a slimy and watery mass. Fan et al. At high relative humidity the lesion may be covered by a creamy colored mycelium. This decay is caused by the fungus Geotrichum candidum, which is a common soil-borne pathogen. (2012). The food sector is very important. The isolated bacillus was then applied on artificially inoculated mandarins alone or with the addition of tea saponin as a natural surface active agent. 1. Several studies indicated that grape berry exudates stimulated B. cinerea spore germination and that stimulation increased during the last month of fruit ripening. I … Found on foodstuffs, leather, and fabrics, they are of economic importance in the production of Penicillium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and are usually considered non-pathogenic to humans. italicum Sopp (1912), P. olivaceum var. Harvest and packingline equipment should be thoroughly sanitized to prevent inoculum accumulation and contamination. 1.3). When added to the fungus conidia during the 4 weeks prior to the picking-ripe stage the exudates significantly increased the aggressiveness of the pathogen on plum and nectarine fruits.